In the last decades, Viet Nam has accomplished the Millennium Development Goal on gender equality ahead of schedule and became one of the countries with the fastest pace in eliminating the gender gap. Despite the great progress, women as well as other people who are disadvantaged on the basis of age, disability, ethnicity, geographic location or economic background often still do not have equal opportunities to participate in education and training. Only 23% of trainees participating in vocational training at partner TVET institutes of the Programme “Reform of TVET in Viet Nam” are women.
In technical occupations the percentage is around 5%. This is due to a persistent perception among students and parents that technical occupations are not suitable for women (GIZ Gender Analysis 2019). Other marginalised groups such as people with disabilities also have less opportunity to participate in vocational training due to infrastructural, financial and social barriers. This unequal access to education and training contributes to limited opportunities for marginalised groups on the labour market (Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs: Labour Market Update 04/2020; TVET Programme 2019).
TVET can therefore play an important role in increasing participation of marginalised groups in society by providing equal access to education and training and improving opportunities on the labour market.
The TVET Programme promotes an inclusive education and training approach aiming to realise the right to receive high quality education and remove barriers limiting the participation and achievement of all learners. It promotes respect for diversity and encourages a flexible and open TVET system that adapts to the needs of marginalised and non-marginalised trainees equally.
At the macro-level, the programme advises the Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (DVET) on inclusive policies which respect and promote diversity and gender equality. This includes support for establishing an in-company trainer qualification system considering International Labour Standards on gender-equality and non-discrimination as well as advice on human rights education. The partners are also supported to develop mechanisms for creating accessible digital tools and training offers.
At the micro-level, the capacities of management and teaching staff of selected TVET institutes are strengthened through further trainings on inclusive teaching, career counselling and management. Together with the partners, events on sexual harassment are organised to raise awareness about gender-based violence. The partners are supported to introduce their training programmes to women and people with disabilities through inclusive open days and Girls’s Days and provide scholarships for marginalised groups.
Moreover, the Programme works together with Siemens Viet Nam and partner TVET institutes to develop gender sensitive and inclusive training modules and materials for Smart Manufacturing. Accessible training stations will be built to improve access of people with disabilities to the training.