Occupational Standards (OS) are a core topic due to their pre-eminent role as the focal point of reference for demand-oriented quality TVET-delivery as well as for accepted and comparable TVET-qualifications - especially in the context of ASEAN integration and labour mobility.
Major TVET goals include training a competent, versatile workforce for the business sector, and at the same time, providing graduates with employable TVET qualifications enabling them to find gainful employment – in the context of labour mobility, not necessarily in the country where the education and training took place. In this regard, Occupational Standards play a central role by defining the typical characteristics of an occupation from the perspective of performing this occupation in the world of work under typical actual working conditions. This definition includes, for example, the major duties and tasks and typical tools and equipment used for performing them as well as the main occupational skills required, knowledge and attitude to work. Occupational Standards are therefore focal points of reference that specify the outcome and outcome quality which TVET geared at training people for a particular occupation needs to meet. Leading on from that, Occupational Standards are the starting point for developing demand-oriented TVET-programmes, and also the end point of TVET-delivery as a reference for assessment and certification.
In contrast to Occupational Standards being outcome standards, TVET-delivery standards - such as standards for TVET-teaching staff, learning infrastructure etc. - are focused on the input and process quality of TVET delivery. They can be characterised as secondary or derived standards because the overarching reference for TVET delivery is the outcome quality as defined in the Occupational Standard.