Viet Nam’s economy has developed rapidly in the past two decades. Annual growth rates at 7% lead to a dynamic economic development which is reflected in Viet Nam’s transformation from one of the world’s poorest nations to a lower middle-income country. This success is put at risk by increasing consumption of resources, environmental pollution and a significant shortage of skilled labour, which is as low as 22% of the national workforce.
At present, the Vietnamese TVET system cannot fulfil the industry’s demands in quality and quantity and TVET graduates’ skills and competencies do not match the needs of the business sector. This is due to a lack of cooperation between TVET institutes and the business sector, outdated training programmes and insufficient practice-oriented training. Additionally, most young people and their parents prefer university studies over TVET education, resulting in declining numbers of TVET trainees in Viet Nam.


Technical and vocational education and training to support a sustainable green economic development of Viet Nam is improved.


The programme “Reform of TVET in Viet Nam” cooperates with the Directorate for Vocational Education and Training (DVET) under the Ministry of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA) in the institutional and legal TVET reform process, in improving the quality and demand-orientation of training offers and the development of Centres of Excellence (CoE). The programme follows a multi-level approach: TVET reform initiatives are piloted at TVET institutes and experiences and lessons learnt are integrated into system advice.

Policy advise includes support for DVET on the development of the legal framework and regulations concerning the cooperation with the business sector in TVET, for instance on the qualification and certification of in-company trainers, as well as greening TVET, development of TVET institutes, and quality assurance.

TVET institutes are strengthened in their efforts to improve the quality of TVET. This includes support for CoEs - TVET institutes providing high-quality, demand-oriented training based on international standards in the fields of mechanics, mechatronics, electrotechnics and wastewater treatment. The cooperation with the business sector is promoted, especially in the development of demand-oriented occupational standards and training programmes. The programme supports the development, improvement and intergration of green elements in occupational standards and training programmes. It also focuses on qualifying in-company trainers and examiners, introducing and improving structured in-company training, and establishing industry boards at the TVET institutes to ensure demand and practice orientation of TVET.

The programme cooperates with nine TVET institutes that have been equipped with modern technical equipment through German Financial Cooperation (FC). International technical experts advise Vietnamese teachers and the management of the TVET institutes on technical and organisational issues. Furthermore, the CoEs take over additional functions in the TVET system, such as further training for teaching and management staff from other TVET institutes as well as for the business sector. Topics such as digitalisation and Industry 4.0 are addressed via Public Private Partnerships (PPP) with leading companies of the industry.

Gender-sensitive communication activities are implemented to raise public awareness about TVET. Open Days, Girls’ and Boys’ days are organised at TVET institutes and scholarships for women in technical trades and people with disabilities are being provided. Skills competitions and Viet Nam’s participation in the WorldSkills competition are supported.

The programme comprises the following components

Further information