Viet Nam’s economy has developed rapidly in the past two decades. Annual growth rates of 7% have lead to dynamic economic development which is reflected in Viet Nam’s transformation from one of the world’s poorest nations to a lower middle income country. This achievement is being put at risk by the increasing consumption of resources, environmental pollution and a significant shortage of skilled workers, estimated at just 22% of the national workforce. The Vietnamese TVET system and competencies and skills of graduates do not yet fulfil the requirements of the industry. This is caused by a lack of cooperation between TVET institutes and the business sector, outdated training programmes and insufficient practice-oriented training, leading to the weak image of vocational training. Therefore, many young people and their parents prefer university studies over TVET.
The programme “Reform of TVET in Viet Nam” cooperates with the Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (DVET) under the Ministry of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA) in the institutional and legal TVET reform process, to improve the quality and demand-orientation of training offers and the development of Centres of Excellence (CoEs). The programme follows a multi-level approach: reform initiatives are piloted at TVET institutes and experiences and lessons learnt are integrated into the entire system. Policy advice includes support for DVET on the development of the legal framework and regulations concerning cooperation with the business sector, for instance, in the qualification and certification of in-company trainers, greening vocational training, the development of TVET institutes, and quality assurance.
The programme cooperates with twelve TVET institutes that have received modern technical equipment through German Financial Cooperation (FC). International technical experts advise Vietnamese teachers and managers of the TVET institutes on technical and organisational issues. The institutes are being strengthened in their efforts to improve the quality of their services. Cooperation with the business sector is promoted in the development of demand-oriented training programmes, in qualifying in-company trainers and examiners, in introducing and improving structured in-company training, and in establishing industry boards at the TVET institutes. Furthermore, the programme supports the development, improvement and integration of green elements in vocational training.
The support for CoEs - TVET institutes providing high-quality, demand-oriented training - is based on international standards in the fields of mechanics, mechatronics, electrotechnics and wastewater treatment. The CoEs take over additional functions in the TVET system, such as further training for teachers and managers from other TVET institutes as well as for the business sector. Topics such as digitalisation and Industry 4.0 are addressed via Public Private Partnerships (PPP) with world leading companies.
Gender-sensitive communication activities are implemented to raise public awareness about TVET. Open Days, Girls’ and Boys’ days are organised at TVET institutes and scholarships for women and people with disabilities in technical trades are being provided. Skills competitions and Viet Nam’s participation in the WorldSkills competition are supported.
Results by 2018
On system level, more than 140 further trained experts and managers from DVET and MoLISA are applying their newly acquired competencies to reform the TVET system and to develop the legal framework based on the TVET law that came into effect in 2015. Recommendations derived from pilot activities enhancing the cooperation with the business sector in TVET have been incorporated into the TVET law and numerous implementation regulations. Monitoring and evaluation instruments, such as tracer studies, enterprise surveys and workshop management that have been developed and piloted at TVET institutes, were integrated into the national accreditation and quality management system.
As part of the trilateral cooperation agreement between the National Institute for Vocational Education and Training (NIVT) of DVET, GIZ and the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB), capacity development for NIVT in TVET reporting led to the regular publication of Viet Nam’s national TVET Report. The report fosters evidence-based policy making in the sector.
Together with the Vietnamese partners, a criteria-based concept for CoEs has been developed. The programme has supported the development of demand- and practice-oriented training programmes in cooperation with more than 60 companies and three sector associations for Construction Mechanics, Metal Cutting - CNC, Industrial Electronics, Mechatronics and Sewage Engineering. Structured, interlinked training phases are being implemented at the TVET institutes and their partner companies.Furthermore, 88 teachers from supported CoEs, who have received further training, improved their theoretical knowledge, as well as practical, pedagogical and examination skills. In-company trainers are being trained to support training phases at cooperating companies. Selected teachers act as multipliers providing further training for teachers of other TVET institutes.
Around 21,000 new trainees per year profit from demand- oriented training offers at supported TVET institutes. In addition, around 120,000 graduates found jobs related to their training with stable incomes, around 25 percent higher than the average monthly income in Viet Nam. 1,300 companies confirmed that graduates’ qualifications meet their needs. Furthermore, 15 image events reached more than 15,000 young people and their parents, contributing to an improved image of TVET in Viet Nam.
The programme comprises the following components